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Dive into the Ultimate Guide: What Is a Pool



Pool (sports)” redirects here. For other uses, see Pool#Sports and gambling.

“Pocket billiards” redirects here. For other uses, see Pocket billiards (disambiguation).

Dutch pool player Niels Feijen at the 2008 European Pool Championship.
A player racking the balls

Pool is a classification of cue sports played on a table with six pockets along the rails, into which balls are shot.[1][2] Each specific pool game has its own name; some of the better-known include eight-ballblackballnine-ballten-ballseven-ballstraight poolone-pocket, and bank pool. Eight-ball is the most frequently played discipline of pool, and is often thought of as synonymous with “pool”.[3]

The generic term pocket billiards is sometimes also used, and favored by some pool-industry bodies, but is technically a broader classification, including games such as snookerRussian pyramid, and kaisa, which are not referred to as pool games.

There are also hybrid games combining aspects of both pool and carom billiards, such as American four-ball billiardsbottle poolcowboy pool, and English billiards.


Historic print depicting Michael Phelan‘s billiard saloon in New York City, January 1, 1859.

The etymology of “pool” is uncertain. The Oxford English Dictionary speculates that “pool” and other games with collective stakes is derived from the French poule (literally translated “hen”), in which the poule is the collected prize, originating from jeu de la poule, a game that is thought to have been played during the Middle Ages. Supposedly, participants would put an equal amount of money into a pot and throw stones at a live chicken, and the person who successfully hit the chicken first would win the pooled money.[4][5] Alternatively the term could derive from the verb to pool in the sense of combining objects or stakes. The oldest use of the word “pool” to describe a billiards-like game was made in 1797 in a Virginia newspaper.[6] The OED defines it as generally “any of various types of billiards for two or more players” but goes on to note that the first specific meaning of “a game in which each player uses a cue ball of a distinctive colour to pocket the balls of the other player(s) in a certain order, the winner taking all the stakes submitted at the start of the contest” is now obsolete, and its other specific definitions are all for games that originate in the United States.[7] In the British Empire for most of the nineteenth through early twentieth century, pool referred specifically to the game of life pool.[8]: 143&187 

Although skittle pool is played on a pocketless carom billiards table, the term pool later stuck to all new games of pocket billiards as the sport gained in popularity in the United States,[8]: 186  and so outside the cue sports industry, which has long favored the more formal term pocket billiards, the common name for the sport has remained pool. The definition no longer even provides the obsolete meaning found in the print edition, and refers only to the typical game “using two sets [each] of seven coloured and numbered balls … with one black ball and a white cue ball” on a table with pockets.[9]


With the exception of one-pocket, games typically called “pool” today are descended from two English games imported to the United States during the 19th century. The first was English billiards which became American four-ball billiards, essentially the same game but with an extra red object ball to increase scoring opportunities. It was the most popular billiards game in the mid-19th century until dethroned by the carom game straight rail. American four-ball tournaments tried switching to carom tables in the 1870s but this did not save it from being doomed to obscurity; the last professional tournament was held in 1876.[8]: 5–6  Cowboy pool is a surviving member of this group of games.

The second and more influential game was pyramid pool. By 1850 a variant called fifteen-ball pool became popular. Both games were supplanted by continuous pool in 1888, the immediate forerunner of straight pool (1910).[10]: 39–43  New games introduced at the turn of the 20th century include Kelly pool and eight-ball. The distinctive appearance of pool balls with their many colors and division between solid and striped balls came about by 1889.[8]: 246  Prior to this, object balls were uniformly deep-red and differentiated only by numbers. English pyramid pool and life pool players were the first to adopt balls with different colors. The stripes were the last addition.[10]: 90–91 


A pool table diagram

Pool is played on a six pocket table. Modern pool tables generally range in size from 3.5 by 7 feet (1.07 by 2.13 m), to 4.5 by 9 feet (1.37 by 2.74 m).

Under World Pool-Billiard Association (WPA) official equipment specifications, pool balls weigh from 5.5 to 6 oz (160 to 170 g) and have a diameter of 2.25 inches (57 mm), plus or minus 0.005 inches (0.13 mm).[11][12] Modern coin-operated pool tables generally use one of three methods to distinguish and return the cue ball to the front of the table while the numbered balls return to an inaccessible receptacle until paid for again: the cue ball is larger and heavier than the other balls, or denser and heavier, or has a magnetic core.

Modern cue sticks are generally 58.5 inches (148.6 cm) long for pool while cues prior to 1980 were designed for straight pool and had an average length of 57.5 inches (146.1 cm). By comparison, carom billiards cues are generally shorter with larger tips, and snooker cues longer with smaller tips.

Game types

Racked games

These are games descended from the early 19th century games of pyramid pool and fifteen-ball pool which required balls to be racked due to the large number of them on the table. Of the other pyramid traditions of Continental Europe, only Russian pyramid survives. Snooker, originally known as snooker’s pool, can be considered a member of this family.

Rotation games[edit]

One of many correct nine-ball racks: the 1 ball at the apex centered over the foot spot, the 9 ball at center, the other balls placed randomly, and all balls touching.

Rotation games require players to make legal contact with the lowest numbered ball on the table or a foul is called. The earliest rotation game, originally known as 61, started off as a variant of fifteen-ball pool during the mid-nineteenth century. The name “rotation” came from how the balls were placed around the table in its unracked offshoot Chicago. 61 has spawned many variations of its own such as American rotationnine-ballten-ball, and Kelly pool. Of these, nine-ball is the most popular and the predominant professional game with ten-ball as the second-most prominent.[13][clarification needed] There are many local and regional tours and tournaments that are contested with nine-ball. The World Pool-Billiard Association (WPA) publishes the world standardized rules. The European professional circuit has instituted rules changes to make it more difficult to achieve a legal break shot.[13][14]

The largest nine-ball tournaments are the US Open Nine-ball Championship and the WPA World Nine-ball Championship for men and women. A hotly contested event is the annual Mosconi Cup, which pits invitational European and U.S. teams against each other in one-on-one and scotch doubles nine-ball matches over a period of several days. The Mosconi Cup games are played under the more stringent European rules, as of 2007.[14]

Straight pool

Main article: Straight pool

Also known as 14.1 continuous, this game originated as a slight modification of continuous pool, another offshoot of fifteen-ball pool. The shooter may attempt to shoot at any object ball on the table. The goal is to reach a set number of points determined by agreement before the game. One point is scored for each object ball pocketed where no foul is made. A typical game might require a player to score 100 points to win. In professional competition, straight pool is usually played to 125 points. Straight pool is a call-pocket game, meaning the player must indicate the intended object ball and pocket on every shot.

Nine-ball pool

This is the most predominant professional pool game in the US and across the globe. The game uses the cue ball and the one (1) through 9 balls. To win the game, players must legally pocket the 9 (nine) ball. Most prominent pool tournaments and competitions in the world offer the nine-ball pool as the main game. To continue with your playing turn, you necessarily need not pocket the least numbered ball. Just like in the other types of pool games, fouls are penalized.


Main article: Eight-ball

Eight-ball rack: Full rack of fifteen balls, ready for the break shot.

Correct set up for blackball.

The most commonly played pool game is eight-ball, which appeared at the beginning of the twentieth century. It is often thought of as synonymous with “pool”. The game has numerous variations, mostly regional. It is the second most played professional pool game, after nine-ball, and for the last several decades ahead of straight pool.[15]

The goal of eight-ball, which is played with a full rack of fifteen balls and the cue ball, is to claim a suit (commonly stripes or solids in the US, and reds or yellows in the UK), pocket all of them, then legally pocket the 8 ball, while denying one’s opponent opportunities to do the same with their suit, and without sinking the 8 ball early by accident. In the United Kingdom the game is commonly played in pubs, and it is competitively played in leagues on both sides of the Atlantic. The most prestigious tournaments including the World Open are sponsored and sanctioned by the International Pool Tour. Rules vary widely from place to place (and between continents to such an extent that British-style eight-ball pool/blackball is properly regarded as a separate game in its own right). Pool halls in North America are increasingly settling upon the World Pool-Billiard Association International Standardized Rules. But tavern eight-ball (also known as “bar pool“), typically played on smaller, coin-operated tables and in a “winner keeps the table” manner, can differ significantly even between two venues in the same city. The growth of local, regional and national amateur leagues may alleviate this confusion eventually.


Main article: One-pocket

One-pocket owes its origins to 18th century cramp (handicapped) games. It is a strategic game for two players in which each player is assigned one of the corner pockets on the table. This is the only pocket into which that player can legally pocket balls. The first player to pocket the majority of the balls (8) into their pocket wins the game. The game requires far more defensive strategy than offensive strategy, much unlike eight-ball, nine-ball, or straight pool. Most times, accomplished players choose to position balls near their pocket instead of trying to actually pocket them. This allows them to control the game by forcing their opponent to be on defense instead of taking a low percentage shot that could result in a loss of game. These low percentage shots are known as “flyers” by one-pocket aficionados.

Bank pool

Main article: Bank pool

Bank pool can be played with a full rack (can be a long game), but is more typically played with nine balls (frequently called “nine-ball bank”). The balls are racked in nine-ball formation, but in no particular order. The object of the game is simple: to be the first player to bank five balls in any order (eight balls when played with a full rack). Penalties and fouls are similar to one pocket in that the player committing the foul must spot a ball for each foul. This must be done before the incoming player shoots.

Artistic pool

Artistic pool is the competitive discipline of trick shots inspired by its carom equivalent. Played on pool or snooker tables, players must complete a set number of shots of varying difficulty.

Hybrid carom or obstacle games

Cowboy pool and bottle pool are games involving only a few balls which are placed at specific spots on the table. Elements of their games go back to the eighteenth century before balls needed to be racked. Bottle pool shares traits with pin billiards games such as Danish pin billiards. Cowboy pool is a descendant of English billiardsKaisa is a similar game played with different equipment.

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The Importance of Badminton Uniforms: Style, Function, and Performance



Badminton Uniforms

Badminton, a sport that demands agility, precision, and endurance, requires athletes to be equipped not only with skill but also with appropriate attire. In the competitive world of badminton, uniforms play a crucial role, blending style with functionality to enhance players’ performance on the court. Where do you find it difficult to find a badminton shirt on demand? We have hundreds of different badminton jersey designs that you can refer to, use as inspiration, or we can help you design a brand new one just for you.

Style: Making a Statement

In the realm of sports, uniforms serve as a visual representation of a team or individual. In badminton, uniforms are no exception. The design, colors, and logos of a player’s attire not only reflect personal preferences but also convey a sense of identity and unity with their team.

Customization and Individuality

While team uniforms often adhere to a specific design, individual players have the opportunity to express their personality through subtle customization. From choosing their preferred color combinations to adding personal insignias, players can make their uniforms uniquely theirs, fostering a sense of confidence and belonging on the court.

Function: Beyond Aesthetics

While style may grab attention, the functionality of badminton uniforms is paramount. Every aspect of the attire, from fabric choice to fit, serves a purpose in enhancing performance and comfort during gameplay.

Fabric Technology

Modern badminton uniforms often utilize advanced fabric technologies designed to wick away moisture, enhance breathability, and provide flexibility. Materials such as polyester blends and spandex offer lightweight comfort while allowing for unrestricted movement, crucial for swift and agile gameplay.

Fit and Mobility

The fit of a badminton uniform is tailored to allow for maximum mobility and agility. Form-fitting designs reduce excess fabric that could impede movement, while strategic seam placements minimize chafing and discomfort during intense rallies. A well-fitted uniform not only aids in performance but also boosts the player’s confidence and focus on the game.

Performance: The Competitive Edge

In the fast-paced world of badminton, every advantage counts. The right uniform can provide athletes with the edge they need to outmaneuver opponents and achieve peak performance on the court.

Aerodynamics and Speed

Sleek, streamlined designs minimize air resistance, allowing players to move swiftly and effortlessly across the court. By reducing drag, specially designed uniforms enable players to reach top speeds and execute rapid directional changes with precision and efficiency.

Temperature Regulation

Intense physical exertion can quickly lead to overheating on the court. Badminton uniforms equipped with moisture-wicking properties help regulate body temperature by efficiently removing sweat and excess heat from the skin. This not only enhances comfort but also prevents fatigue, allowing players to maintain focus and endurance throughout the match.

Uniting Style and Function

In the dynamic world of badminton, uniforms serve as more than just clothing; they are a strategic tool for enhancing performance and projecting a sense of unity and identity. By combining style with functionality, modern badminton uniforms empower athletes to excel on the court, pushing the boundaries of their abilities and inspiring admiration both on and off the playing field. As the sport continues to evolve, so too will the innovation and design of badminton attire, ensuring that players remain equipped for success in every aspect of the game.


Dive into the Ultimate Guide: What Is a Pool

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Anxiety: Causes and Solutions



Anxiety disorders affect millions of people worldwide, causing significant distress and impacting daily functioning. While experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life, persistent and excessive worry can indicate an underlying anxiety disorder. In this article, we delve into the various causes of anxiety and explore effective solutions for managing it.

Common Causes of Anxiety

Genetic Factors:

Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders, making them more susceptible to experiencing intense feelings of fear and apprehension.

Environmental Triggers:

Traumatic events, such as abuse, loss, or major life changes, can trigger anxiety disorders in susceptible individuals. Additionally, ongoing stress from work, relationships, or financial struggles can contribute to the development of anxiety.

Brain Chemistry Imbalances:

Imbalances in neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, play a role in regulating mood and anxiety levels. Changes in these brain chemicals can lead to the onset of anxiety disorders.

Social and Cultural Influences on Anxiety

Impact of Societal Pressures:

The pressure to succeed academically, professionally, or socially can fuel anxiety in individuals striving to meet unrealistic expectations set by society.

Cultural Attitudes Towards Mental Health:

Cultural beliefs and attitudes towards mental health issues can influence how individuals perceive and seek treatment for anxiety disorders. Stigma surrounding mental illness may prevent some from seeking help.

Stress and Anxiety

Relationship Between Stress and Anxiety:

Stressful life events, such as job loss, relationship problems, or financial difficulties, can exacerbate anxiety symptoms. Learning effective stress management techniques is essential for reducing anxiety levels.

Coping Mechanisms for Stress Management:

Engaging in activities such as exercise, meditation, or hobbies can help alleviate stress and promote relaxation, reducing the likelihood of anxiety.

Health Conditions Associated with Anxiety

Chronic Illnesses and Anxiety:

Individuals living with chronic illnesses may experience heightened anxiety due to the uncertainties surrounding their health and future outcomes.

The Role of Lifestyle Factors in Anxiety:

Poor lifestyle habits, such as lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, or substance abuse, can contribute to the development or worsening of anxiety disorders.

Psychological Factors in Anxiety

Trauma and PTSD:

Experiencing traumatic events, such as physical or sexual abuse, natural disasters, or accidents, can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated anxiety symptoms.

Negative Thinking Patterns and Anxiety:

Negative thought patterns, such as catastrophizing or rumination, can perpetuate anxiety by magnifying perceived threats and generating excessive worry.

Behavioral Patterns and Anxiety

Avoidance Behaviors:

Individuals with anxiety disorders may engage in avoidance behaviors to alleviate discomfort, but this can reinforce anxiety in the long term by preventing exposure to feared situations.

Substance Abuse and Its Link to Anxiety:

Substance abuse, including alcohol, drugs, or prescription medications, can exacerbate anxiety symptoms and interfere with effective treatment outcomes.

Managing Anxiety

Effective management of anxiety often involves a combination of therapeutic interventions, medication, and lifestyle modifications.

Therapy Options:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based therapy, and exposure therapy are commonly used therapeutic approaches for treating anxiety disorders.

Medications for Anxiety Disorders:

Antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and beta-blockers may be prescribed to alleviate anxiety symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Lifestyle Changes for Anxiety Relief:

Regular exercise, healthy eating habits, adequate sleep, and stress management techniques can help reduce anxiety levels and promote emotional well-being.

Self-Care Techniques for Anxiety

Exercise and Its Impact on Anxiety:

Physical activity releases endorphins, neurotransmitters that promote feelings of happiness and reduce stress, making exercise an effective way to manage anxiety.

Dietary Considerations for Anxiety Management:

Consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acids can support brain health and reduce anxiety symptoms.

Importance of Sleep Hygiene:

Prioritizing good sleep hygiene by maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, creating a relaxing bedtime routine, and optimizing sleep environment can improve sleep quality and reduce anxiety.

Support Systems for Anxiety

Family and Friends’ Role in Anxiety Management:

Having a supportive network of family and friends who understand and validate one’s struggles with anxiety can provide emotional comfort and practical assistance.

Support Groups and Community Resources:

Joining support groups or seeking guidance from mental health professionals can offer valuable resources, information, and peer support for individuals struggling with anxiety disorders.

Preventive Measures for Anxiety

Stress Reduction Techniques:

Incorporating stress reduction techniques, such as deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, or mindfulness meditation, into daily routines can prevent anxiety symptoms from escalating.

Early Intervention Strategies:

Recognizing early signs of anxiety and seeking professional help promptly can prevent the worsening of symptoms and improve treatment outcomes.

Seeking Professional Help

Recognizing When to Seek Help:

Persistent anxiety symptoms that interfere with daily functioning, relationships, or quality of life may warrant professional evaluation and treatment.

Overcoming Stigma Surrounding Mental Health Treatment:

Seeking help for anxiety is a courageous step towards healing and should be viewed as a proactive measure for improving overall well-being.

Anxiety can stem from various causes, and finding a solution often involves addressing these underlying factors. Here are some common causes and potential solutions:

  1. Stressful Life Events: Significant life changes, such as moving, changing jobs, or relationship issues, can trigger anxiety.
    • Solution: Developing coping mechanisms like mindfulness, exercise, or seeking support from friends, family, or a therapist can help manage stress.
  2. Genetics and Biology: Some individuals may be predisposed to anxiety disorders due to genetics or imbalances in brain chemistry.
    • Solution: Consultation with a healthcare professional can lead to treatments such as therapy, medication, or a combination of both to help manage symptoms.
  3. Trauma or Past Experiences: Traumatic events or experiences from the past can contribute to anxiety.
    • Solution: Therapy, particularly techniques like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), can help individuals process and cope with past traumas.
  4. Health Conditions: Certain medical conditions like thyroid disorders or heart problems can exacerbate feelings of anxiety.
    • Solution: Seeking medical treatment for underlying health issues can alleviate anxiety symptoms. Additionally, adopting a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and adequate sleep can support overall well-being.
  5. Substance Use: Alcohol, drugs, or even excessive caffeine intake can worsen anxiety symptoms.
    • Solution: Limiting or abstaining from substances can help manage anxiety. Seeking support groups or professional help for substance use disorders is also crucial.
  6. Personality Traits: Perfectionism, excessive worrying, or low self-esteem can predispose individuals to anxiety.
    • Solution: Therapy, particularly approaches like CBT, can help individuals challenge negative thought patterns and develop healthier coping mechanisms.
  7. Environmental Factors: High-pressure work environments, financial stress, or exposure to violence can contribute to anxiety.
    • Solution: Making lifestyle changes, setting boundaries, or seeking support through counseling or support groups can help individuals better manage environmental stressors.

It’s important to remember that everyone’s experience with anxiety is unique, and finding the right solution may require a combination of approaches tailored to individual needs. Seeking professional help from therapists, counselors, or healthcare providers can provide valuable guidance and support in managing anxiety effectively.

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Why Football is a Popular Sport




Football, also known as soccer in some regions, stands as one of the most beloved and widely followed sports worldwide. Its popularity transcends borders, cultures, and languages, captivating the hearts of millions. From local matches in small towns to grand tournaments on the global stage, football holds a special place in the hearts of fans everywhere.

Historical Significance

Football traces its origins back centuries, with early forms of the game played in various civilizations. Over time, it evolved into the structured sport we know today, with codified rules and regulations. The sport’s journey from ancient times to the modern era illustrates its enduring appeal and significance in human culture.

Global Reach

One of the defining features of football is its global reach. Unlike many other sports, football enjoys immense popularity across every continent, from Europe and South America to Africa and Asia. Its universal appeal makes it a unifying force, bringing people together regardless of nationality, race, or creed.

Thrilling Gameplay

The essence of football lies in its thrilling gameplay. Matches are filled with suspense, drama, and moments of sheer brilliance. Whether it’s a last-minute goal or a breathtaking dribble, football never fails to captivate audiences with its dynamic and unpredictable nature.

Accessible to All

One of the reasons for football’s widespread popularity is its accessibility. Unlike sports that require expensive equipment or specialized facilities, football can be played almost anywhere, from sandy beaches to urban streets. All that’s needed is a ball and a space to kick it around, making it an inclusive sport for people of all backgrounds.

Community and Camaraderie

Football fosters a sense of community and camaraderie among fans and players alike. Whether it’s cheering for a favorite team at a stadium or playing a friendly match with friends, football brings people together and creates lasting bonds forged through a shared passion for the game.

Economic Impact

Beyond its cultural significance, football also has a substantial economic impact. From ticket sales and television rights to merchandise and sponsorship deals, the football industry generates billions of dollars in revenue each year. Additionally, it provides employment opportunities for millions of people worldwide, ranging from professional players to stadium staff and marketing executives.

Media and Marketing

The media plays a crucial role in promoting football and enhancing its popularity. Through television broadcasts, social media coverage, and advertising campaigns, football reaches audiences on a global scale. Major tournaments like the FIFA World Cup attract millions of viewers, making them prime opportunities for brands to showcase their products and services to a captive audience.

Celebrity Status

Footballers enjoy celebrity status on par with Hollywood stars and music icons. Their talent and charisma on the field often translate into lucrative endorsement deals and sponsorship agreements. Footballers become cultural icons, influencing trends in fashion, lifestyle, and entertainment.

Legacy and Tradition

Football is steeped in tradition, with rituals and customs that have been passed down through generations. From pre-match rituals to post-game celebrations, these traditions contribute to the rich tapestry of football culture and help maintain its enduring appeal over time.

Health and Fitness Benefits

Beyond its entertainment value, football also offers numerous health and fitness benefits. Playing football helps improve cardiovascular health, strength, agility, and coordination. Moreover, participating in team sports like football fosters social skills, teamwork, and camaraderie, promoting overall well-being.

Technological Advancements

Advancements in technology have revolutionized the way football is played and experienced. From video assistant referees (VAR) to goal-line technology, these innovations have enhanced the accuracy and fairness of the game. Moreover, technology has also transformed fan engagement, with interactive apps and virtual experiences bringing supporters closer to the action than ever before.

International Events

International events like the FIFA World Cup capture the imagination of millions of fans around the world. These tournaments transcend sport, serving as platforms for cultural exchange and diplomatic relations. They unite nations in friendly competition, showcasing the power of football to bridge divides and bring people together.

Youth Development

Grassroots football programs play a vital role in nurturing talent and promoting youth development. By providing access to coaching, facilities, and competitions, these programs help young players hone their skills and fulfill their potential. Moreover, football offers valuable life lessons in discipline, perseverance, and teamwork, shaping the leaders of tomorrow.


In conclusion, football’s popularity can be attributed to a combination of factors, including its thrilling gameplay, global reach, accessibility, and cultural significance. As the world’s most popular sport, football continues to captivate audiences and inspire millions of fans worldwide, uniting people across borders and generations.

1. Why is football called “the beautiful game”?

Football is often referred to as “the beautiful game” due to its fluidity, creativity, and the aesthetic appeal of skilled players in action.

2. How has technology impacted football?

Technology has had a significant impact on football, improving officiating, enhancing the viewing experience, and revolutionizing player performance analysis.

3. What are some famous football rivalries?

Some famous football rivalries include El Clásico (Real Madrid vs. Barcelona), the North West Derby (Manchester United vs. Liverpool), and the Old Firm Derby (Celtic vs. Rangers).

4. What is the significance of the FIFA World Cup?

The FIFA World Cup is the most prestigious tournament in football, held.

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